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领取养老金(Age Pension) 的 10 年居住要求的问题 + 养老金可以领多少

2014-4-9 12:47| 发布者: 小豹子 | 查看: 154112| 原文链接

请注意,本贴所说的养老金是指 Age Pension, 是在你65岁以后(这个岁数有变化,具体请查看 human services 的网站)政府评估了你的收入和资产后所给你的补贴。

请不要与 Super (superannuation) 混淆了, Super 是你在工作的时候你的雇主帮你交的或者你自己交的,等累积到你退休了以后可以取出来用。


看英文困难的网友们,请住下看,后面有中文的解释。



Department of Human Services 网站上写的是:

http://www.humanservices.gov.au/ ... trelink/age-pension

You also need to have been an Australian resident for a continuous period of at least 10 years, or for a number of periods that total more than ten years, with one of the periods being at least five years, unless you:

   
  •     are a refugee or former refugee, or
  •     were getting Partner Allowance, Widow Allowance or Widow B Pension immediately before turning Age Pension age, or
  •     are a woman whose partner died while you were both Australian residents, and you have been an Australian resident for two years immediately before claiming Age Pension



对 Australian Resident 的解释是:

http://www.humanservices.gov.au/ ... idence-descriptions

An Australian resident is a person who is living in Australia and is either:

    an Australian citizen
    a permanent visa holder, or
    a 'protected' Special Category Visa (SCV) holder


然后对 Living in Australia 的解释是:

You are living in Australia if Australia is your usual place of residence. That is, Australia is where you make your home.

When we are deciding whether you are living in Australia we will look at:

        the nature of your accommodation, and
        the nature and extent of your family relationships in Australia, and
        the nature and extent of your employment, business or financial ties with Australia, and
        the frequency and duration of your travel outside Australia, and
        any other matter we think is relevant


也就是说你必须:
1、保持你的澳大利亚居民( Australian Resident) 身份10年不间断,或者
2、你的澳大利亚居民( Australian Resident)身份有间断, 但是所有的片段加起来有10年以上,而且其中的一个片断必须有5年以上。例如:你保持居民( Australian Resident)身份3年,然后因某种原因断掉了,后来又保持了居民( Australian Resident)身份5年,然后又断掉了,然后又保持了居民( Australian Resident)身份2年,这样就符合了10年的要求,即 3年 + 5年 + 2年 = 10年,并且其中有一段是5年。

照他们对Living in Australia的解释,保持Australian Resident 身份并不一定要一直呆在 Australia,我做了一些研究, 查到了一些有用的信息,原来还是靠审批的人来综合判断。大家慢慢看吧:

http://guidesacts.fahcsia.gov.au ... guide-3.1.1.10.html

(Department of Human Services 对于这个问题没有详细的解释,但是 Department of Social Services 管理的 Guides to Social Policy Law 网站上却解释得非常清楚。这些是原文,后面有我翻译的内容。)

When making a determination about whether a person is 'residing' - in other words 'living' - in Australia, the key point is to establish that Australia is the person's settled or usual place of abode - i.e. that the person makes Australia his or her home. In general, it is not possible for a person to be residing in more than one country at the same time. In most cases, the balance of a person's ties will weigh more heavily in favour of one country than another.

The decision as to whether a person is residing in Australia must be based on the balance of all the available evidence. No single factor should be taken to be conclusive on its own and some factors will usually provide a greater indication than others, however in the majority of cases the most weight should be given to the time spent in Australia. In general, it is also expected that a person who resides in Australia will be able to demonstrate strong ties to Australia under a number of different criteria listed in SSAct section 7(3).

1. Frequency & duration of the person's travel outside Australia

A person does not need to be continuously present in a country in order to be residing there. A person holidaying or working temporarily overseas does not necessarily cease to reside in Australia while they are away.

It is necessary to find the reason for being overseas and to look closely at the pattern and duration of time spent outside Australia in order to ascertain whether a person continues to reside in Australia. For Australian residence to be maintained during an absence, a person must demonstrate continued physical ties to Australia, the absence must be for a short duration, there must be a purpose for the absence and there must be a proposed end date for the absence.

Taken in isolation, a 3 year continuous absence would be regarded as an upper limit to still being considered residing in Australia, unless there are special circumstances delaying a return. When looking at the pattern and duration of time spent outside Australia, if a person regularly spends more than 6 months a year outside Australia, then their residence in Australia is questionable.

The purpose of an overseas absence may indicate whether a person continues to reside in Australia. The reason should be consistent with the intended length of the absence. For example, a person working on an 18 month overseas contract posting would still be considered to reside in Australia as long as they have demonstrated ongoing physical ties to Australia and a commitment to return to Australia at the end of the posting.

It is not uncommon for a person to remain overseas for a lengthy period of time but state that they intend to return to Australia to live at some uncertain, future date. In general, when a person states that they are leaving Australia temporarily with the intention of returning to Australia, the person's 'intent' becomes less of a factor as the length of the absence increases. A person's physical ties with a country will normally take precedence over their intentions when lengthy periods of time are involved.

A person who has spent the majority of their time overseas in the last few years and who returns to Australia to claim a benefit will not necessarily be eligible from the day they return to Australia. The person must demonstrate that their physical ties with Australia have been re-established, or are in the process of being established and that they intend to reside again in Australia.


Example 1: Derek is single, aged 56, and has spent the last 2 years in Thailand as he prefers the climate and cost of living. He initially went for a short holiday and when he came back he rented out his furnished property in Australia on an indefinite basis and took on a long term lease of an apartment in Thailand. He is not employed. He keeps in contact with extended family by phone and has a return trip booked to Australia for medical treatment. He has to renew his Thai visa every year and does not consider himself to be a resident of Thailand because he is not eligible for a permanent visa there. He plans to return to Australia one day and for this reason has not sold his house.


Derek's argument that he does not have a permanent visa to stay in Thailand does not override the fact that he spends the majority of his time living in Thailand. Based on the duration of his absence and the fact that his plans to return to live in Australia are vague, at this point in time he is considered to be residing in Thailand.

例一:

德某56岁单身,在过去2年里一直呆在泰国,他把他在澳大利亚的房子无限期的出租了出去,然后在泰国签了一个长期的租约租了一个房子居住。他经常和澳洲的亲戚打电话联系,也订了机票回澳就医。他持有泰国临时签证,每年都要续签。他认为自己应该仍然保持澳洲居民身份因为他总有一天会回澳且没有卖掉他的房子。

审批官认为德某虽然没有泰国的永久签证但是这并不能大过他大部份时间都住在泰国这一事实,而且他回澳的计划很不明确,所以认定他在这一时间段是居住在泰国,而不是在澳洲,所以他的澳洲居民身份在这里就断了。



Example 2: John and Belinda are both retired and have rented out their home in Australia for 2 years while they are in Europe. Their vehicle is on loan to John's brother in Australia who is looking after their furniture. They have purchased a townhouse in Perugia in Italy for their daughter who will be studying at a nearby university for 4 years and they see it as a good investment. They plan to have an extended holiday in Europe after their daughter has settled into her first year of study. They have a firm plan to return to Australia at the end of the 2 years as John expects to be doing contract work for his previous employer. Due to the fact that their plans in Europe are for a defined period and a short term purpose and there is other supporting evidence, they are considered to still be residing in Australia.

例二:

有一对夫妇他们都已退休,他们去欧洲住了2年,在这2年期,他们把房子出租,租期为2年,他们的车借给了他的弟弟,弟弟帮他们照看他们的家具。他们在意大利为他们的女儿买了一个房子,因为女儿在附近要读4年的大学,而且他们认为这是一个不错的投资。女儿学习了一年以后,他们决定去欧洲渡2年长假。他们有明确的计划在2年后回澳因为 John 将要为他以前的雇主做一些合同工作。

审批官认为因为他们有明确的计划只在欧洲住2年,2 年后会回澳,加上一些其他的辅助证据,他们被认为仍然保持澳大利亚居民身份。





懒得看英文或者看不懂英文的朋友们,我简单概括一下,如果我的理解有偏差请大家指出:

申请养老金(Age Pension)的居住要求:

  • 你必须要保持澳大利亚居民身份 (Australian Resident)连续10年,或者
  • 你的澳大利亚居民身份 (Australian Resident)有间断,但是这些片断加起来要超过10年,而且其中一段必须有5年那么长,除非你符合下面的条件:
    •     你是(或曾经是)难民,或者
    •     你在达到领养老金年龄之前正在领取 Partner Allowance, Widow Allowance 或者 Widow B Pension, 或者
    •     你是一名女性,而且你的配偶已经去世,在他去世的时候你们俩都必须是Australian Resident (澳大利亚居民), 并且在你申请养老金之日的前两年你必须是 Australian Resident (澳大利亚居民)。 Australian Resident (澳大利亚居民)就是指你要有永居签证(或者你是公民)并且以澳大利亚为主要居住地。


所谓“保持澳大利亚居民身份 (Australian Resident)”,并不是指你一定要在澳洲境内,而是指你是以澳洲作为你的居住(常住)地,就是你的家在澳洲。

审批者会根据以下同方面判定你是否保持澳大利亚居民身份 (Australian Resident):

1. 你是否持有相应的永久签证(永居签证,澳大利亚公民等)
2. 你在澳(和在中国)所住的房子类型的比较(比如说是合租的,还是买的,还是跟家人一起住,还是住旅馆等等)
3. 你的家庭关系(特别是直系亲属)在哪个国家,你和他们之间的关系(联系)怎么样;
4. 你的职业,生意,资产跟澳大利亚的联系;
5. 你离开澳大利亚的频率和时间长度;
6. 其他审批者认为有关的事项。

关于第5条“你离开澳大利亚的频率和时间长度”,文中唯一提到的就是最高限度是3年,也就是说如果你离澳3年以上,你就很难再说你是以澳洲作为你的常住地。另外一种就是如果你定期的或者有规律性的(regularly)离澳6个月以上,审批者也会倾向于认为你不是以澳洲作为你的常住地。 其他的情况就要靠具体分析了,但总的来说,如果你离澳有明确的目的(比如说度假,甚至工作)并且有明确的计划什么时候回澳,你在澳洲这边所做的安排明显表明你还要回来,比如你的房子还留着,虽然租出去了,但是租约是有明确结束日期而不是无限期的,你的车子还留着等等,就可以认为你还是澳大利亚居民(Australian Resident)。当然你离开的越久,就越难认定你还是否澳大利亚居民(Australian Resident),但总可以争取的。有人电话问过 Centrelink, Centrelink 的工作人员说的跟我写的有区别,但是我一向认为Centrelink 的工作人员有时候自己对政策都不是很清楚,不同的人说的都不一样。所以请大家自己判断吧。

有人问到底能拿多少养老金?算起来还有点麻烦,金额总在变,而且具体还要看个人的收入和资金状况,我下面只是提供一个大概的数字,而且是2014年6月的数据。具体请看:
http://www.humanservices.gov.au/ ... trelink/age-pension
http://www.humanservices.gov.au/ ... ncome-test-pensions
http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/enablers/deeming

另外,你持有的房产也会有影响(自住房不算在内):
http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/enablers/assets/#a15
We include the value of any real estate that’s not your principal home.

单人:

做收入测试的时候你的存款也会视为 (Deeming) 会产生收入,你的存款少于$46,600的部份按2%来折算为年收入,高于$46,600的部份按3.5%来折算为年收入。

比如你的存款是10万澳元,那就算你每年有 $46,600 x 2% + ($100,000 - $46,600) x 3.5% = $2,807 的收入,那每两周就是 $2,807除以26等于 $107.96。如果你每两周还有实际的收入比如说是$500。那么你每两周的收入就是 $107.96 + $500 = $607.96


如果你的两周收入少于 $156 的话,你的养老金是每两周 $842.80,
如果你的两周收入超过 $156 的话,每超 $1 养老金就会少 40 分,上面的例子你的收入是 $607.96,所以你的养老金是每两周 $842.80-($607.96-$156)x0.4 = $662.02
如果你的两周收入达到 $1,841.60 的话,养老金就没有了。

夫妻两人:

存款的Deeming:http://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/enablers/deeming

The first $79,600 of your and your partner's financial investments is deemed to earn income at 2% per annum and any amount over that is deemed to earn income at 3.5% per annum.

你的存款少于 $79,600 的部份按2%来折算为年收入,高于 $79,600 的部份按3.5%来折算为年收入。

如果你们的两周收入少于 $276 的话,你们的养老金是(两人一共)每两周 $1,270.60,
如果你们的两周收入超过 $276 的话,每超 $1 养老金就会少 40 分。
如果你们的两周收入达到 $2,817.20 的话,养老金就没有了。

我算了一下:

假设老两口没有任何收入,只有存款,那么如果存款少于24.5万澳元的话就可以领全额的养老金,如果超过216万澳元的话,养老金就没有了(2015年1月数据)

假设老两口没有存款,在国内的退休金一共是每个月1万元,可以算出每两周的收入是: 10,000元 x 12个月 / 26个星期 = 4,615元 / 汇率 5 = $923。那么可以领到的养老金是(两人一共)每两周: $1,270.6 - ($923-$276)x 0.4 = $1,011.80

假设老两口有10万澳元存款,在国内的退休金一共是每个月1万元,可以算出每两周的收入是:
退休金部份: 10,000元 x 12个月 / 26个星期 = 4,615元 / 汇率 5 = $923。
存款部份: ($79,600 x 2% + ($100,000-$79,600 ) x 3.5%) / 26个星期 = $88.69
每两周的收入合计: $923+$88.69= $1,011.69
那么可以领到的养老金是(两人一共)每两周: $1,270.6 - ($1,011.69 - $276)x 0.4 = $976.32


感兴趣的同学可以算一下,如果我算错了的话别骂。。。




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